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There are numerous basic electronic components that are used for building electronic circuits. These components include resistors, diodes, capacitors, integrated circuits, and so on. Some of these components consists of two or more terminals which are soldered to circuit boards. Some may be packaged type like integrated circuits in which different semiconductor devices are integrated.An electronic circuit comprises of various types of components, which are classified into two types: active components like transistors, diodes, IC’s; and passive components like capacitors, resistors, inductors, etc.Computer hardware, represents the physical components of a computer like its electronics parts. For example, CPU, Memory, Hard Disk, Monitor, Printer, Mouse, etc.



A sensor is a device or module whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive buttons and lamps, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded widely. Also,analog sensors like potentiometers & force-sensing resistors are still widely used. Applications include manufacturing and machinery,aerospace,cars,medicine,robotics and many other aspects. There are a wide range of other sensors, measuring chemical & physical properties of materials, optical sensors for RI measurement, vibrational sensors for fluid viscosity measurement and electro-chemical sensor for monitoring pH.



Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.



An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve. In simple terms, it is a "mover". An actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. The control signal is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. Its main energy source may be an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. When it receives a control signal, an actuator responds by converting the source's energy into mechanical motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a human, or any other input


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