There are numerous basic electronic components that are used for building electronic circuits. These components include resistors, diodes, capacitors, integrated circuits, and so on. Some of these components consists of two or more terminals which are soldered to circuit boards. Some may be packaged type like integrated circuits in which different semiconductor devices are integrated.An electronic circuit comprises of various types of components, which are classified into two types: active components like transistors, diodes, IC’s; and passive components like capacitors, resistors, inductors, etc.Computer hardware, represents the physical components of a computer like its electronics parts. For example, CPU, Memory, Hard Disk, Monitor, Printer, Mouse, etc.
A sensor is a device or module whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics.
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive buttons and lamps, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded widely. Also,analog sensors like potentiometers & force-sensing resistors are still widely used. Applications include manufacturing and machinery,aerospace,cars,medicine,robotics and many other aspects. There are a wide range of other sensors, measuring chemical & physical properties of materials, optical sensors for RI measurement, vibrational sensors for fluid viscosity measurement and electro-chemical sensor for monitoring pH.